Archive - Электронный научный журнал "ТРУДЫ ВИАМ"



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1. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-5-3-11
УДК 669.018.44:669.245
Yakimovitch P.V., Alekseev A.V.

At present, high-temperature nickel alloys are widely used in the modern aviation industry and engine-building, which experience enormous thermal and power loads during operation. Performance and reliability are key indicators of the quality of materials made from these alloys. For the design and production of modern aircraft it is necessary to create new types of high-temperature alloys with ever better properties.

An extremely important component in the success of the production of high-quality nickel alloys is the tight control of their chemical composition, in particular the content of harmful impurities (which include P, As, Se, Cd, Cu, Zn, Te, Sb), which even in trace amounts have a negative effect on various properties of metals and alloys.

Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the preferred method of multiple element analysis. The positive characteristics of this method are - high sensitivity, the ability to simultaneously determine a large number of elements, the accuracy of the analysis. When using this method, you must take into account the presence of multiple spectral interferences affecting the results of the analysis. To overcome the spectral interferences, one can use the equations of mathematical correction, as well as special reaction-collisional cells, which are an integral part of modern ICP-MS spectrometers.

In the work, the determination of P, As, Se, Cd, Cu, Zn, Te, Sb was carried out in three certified standard samples (CO) of the composition of the alloy type VZhM-5, made in the FSUE «VIAM». The use of a reaction-collision cell (KED measurement mode with a gas mixture of 8% hydrogen-92% helium) significantly reduced the interfering influence of oxide ions on the determination of Cu, Zn and Cd, but did not improve the results of the determination of As, Se, P, Te Sb. The&

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2. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-5-12-21
УДК 678.8
Petrova A.P., Mukhametov R.R., Akhmadieva K.R.

Internal stresses (thermal internal stresses) appearing in polyester binders during their curing are considered.

The studies were carried out with the use of polyester maleate binder, cured at room temperature, and fiberglass on its base.

Internal stresses were determined by the cantilever method.

Properties were determined depending on the relative humidity of the air in the room during curing, storage and the mode of heat treatment of the samples.

Data shown on the effect of air humidity and duration of curing at room temperature on the breaking strength of free films, obtained on the basis of a binder.

It is shown that at a relative air humidity φ=30–60% the strength of the samples during curing is weakly reduced (~9%). Curing the binder at an air humidity of φ=98% leads to a decrease in strength of ~19% in comparison with samples cured in a dry atmosphere (relative humidity of air φ=0%).

Heat treatment of the samples cured at room temperature at temperatures of 60, 80 and 120°C leads to an increase in their break strength. In particular, heat treatment at 120°C increases strength by 20–33%. At the same time, higher strength values ​​are observed for samples formed under conditions of lower air humidity.

Data shown on the effect of relative humidity of the air during curing, storage and subsequent heat treatment of samples of fiberglass on the base of polyester maleate binder and fiberglass on their break strength. It is shown that the production and storage of fiberglass at high relative humidity (φ=98%) leads to a decrease in its strength (290 MPa) compared with samples received in dry atmospheric conditions (325 MPa). Removing water from p

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3. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-5-22-31
УДК 678.8
Deev I.S., Zhelezina G.F., Lonskii S.L., Kurshev E.V.

The studies of the microstructure of the polymer matrix in organoplastic on the basis of aramid fabrics and multicomponent epoxy binding modified epoxy resins showed that the polymer matrix phase characteristic of heterogeneity: a single phase of the fine structure characteristic of the microstructure of the epoxy polymer in the zones with a dense package of textile fibers (inside threads); two-phase structure characteristic of the microstructure of epoxy resins, modified polysulfone, in areas with less dense packing of fibers (between the yarns and layers of fabric). The formation of such a phase structure of the polymer matrix can be explained by the peculiarities of the process of impregnation of aramid fabric with a molten multi-component epoxy binder in the manufacture of prepreg. The uniform distribution of epoxy binder components in the reinforcing filler depends on the structural and chemical parameters of the components themselves (molecular weight, steric parameters, adsorption to the fiber, etc.), as well as on the density of the aramid fiber packaging in various micro volumes of the reinforcing filler (yarn, fabric, interlayer space). The larger phase formations of the polysulfone present in the melt of the epoxy binder obviously do not penetrate into the inter-fiber space inside the filament, where the density of the fibers is high, but are concentrated between the strands or layers of tissue. Studies of the microstructure confirmed that in the manufacture of organoplasty on the basis of aramid tissue and a molten multi-component epoxy binder occurs redistribution of the binder components in the inter-fiber space of the reinforcing filler with a predominant arrangement of the polysulfone modifier between the threads and the layers of tissue, leading to the formation of a two-phase structure.

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4. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-5-32-40
УДК 667.621
Mishkin S.I., Malakhovskiy S.S.

The work is devoted to recent developments in producing of fast cure resins and prepregs based on it. Such class of materials include systems that are capable to cure in less than 20 minutes.

The article reviews the possible ways in fast cure resins creation, the latest developments in catalysts for rapid curing of  resins are given. Literature data analysis about catalysts for rapid cure resins showed they can be either encapsulated in core shell either latent hardener.

In work presents data about firms and area of application of fast cure prepregs. These include such major companies like Hexcel, TenCate, Solvay and so on. The best experience of successful introduction have foreign car concern such as BMW, Audi, Nissan and so on. Also presented domestic experience of producing fast cure resin.

In article showed, that VIAM has experience in creation of fast cure resins based on phenolic resin for prepreg technology (RC-N, VCPH-16M). Also FSUE «VIAM» is developer of SMC-materials, their can impute to material of fast cure. Duration of production product consists of SMC-materials is less 30 seconds on 1 mm of product thickness at 140–150°С.

The basic advantages of introduction fast cure resins and prepacks are rapidity of the technological cycle, increasing productivity, reducing energetic costs and consumables, absence requirement in additional specific equipment

It is necessary to notice that FSUE «VIAM» has all necessary material resources and experiences to development fast cure resins and based on it prepregs with hard time 2–5 minutes.

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5. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-5-41-51
УДК 666.7
Bespalov A.S., Nefyodov N.I., Deev I.S., Kurshev E.V., Lonskii S.L., Bouznik V.M.

One of the promising areas of materials science is the search for methods and technologies for obtaining effective anti-icing and highly hydrophobic coatings of constructional and functional materials. This problem is particularly acute in the new industry of materials science - Arctic Materials Science, aimed at developing new and adapting previously developed materials for their use in the arctic and subarctic climate, characterized by lower temperatures, high values of relative humidity, a significant amount of temperature transition through 0 °С, strong winds. The most vulnerable man-made objects in such conditions are offshore oil platforms and mobile devices, for example, associated with rescue operations during the evacuation of people from the accident zone, often accompanied by ignition of petroleum products. The creation of such means dictates the need to develop or improve a large amount of various materials, among which an important place is occupied by the coatings in direct contact with the arctic environment. They should possess not only highly hydrophobic properties, but also ensure minimum adhesion of snow and ice to the surface of such devices.

The properties of hydrophobized samples of high-porous ceramic material of the type TZMK based on quartz fibers are analyzed, and the influence of the method of applying hydrophobic coatings on the contact angle and their surface profilometry is evaluated. Structural features have been studied and the uniformity of hydrophobic coating application based on low molecular weight fluoroligomer brand PPU-90 has been shown.

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6. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-5-52-61
УДК 681.586.5
Kachura S.M., Postnov V.I.

A significant increase in the use of composite materials, including in aerospace technology, makes the task of monitoring the state of structures very relevant. One of the most promising approaches is the use of fiber optic sensors as part of the monitoring system.

Currently, fiber optic sensors of various types are used - primarily interferometric sensors, sensors based on fiber Bragg grating and distributed sensors.

Monitoring of mechanical starain and temperature inside structures is one of the most frequently solved tasks with the help of fiber optic sensors, both with the use of fiber optic sensors based on Bragg gratings, and with the use of distributed fiber optic sensors. Monitoring of acoustic emission with the use of fiber optic sensors allows to detect the appearance of internal FRP damage, analyzing the sound waves coming from them, as well as to identify the location of these damages.

Now there is a new type of devices or systems – so-called Lab-in-fiber or laboratory in fiber. This is due to the possibility of forming the elements of electronics, optoelectronics and micromechanics in a thin and flexible fiber. These systems provide new opportunities when used as sensors for monitoring the state of structures, in robotics, in the diagnosis of diseases, in communication systems, etc. The complex development of such systems can lead to the creation of a fiber optic sensor that does not require an interrogator or contains it inside the fiber. Such a sensor can be embedded in the material and have no physical connections with the outside world, which will improve the manufacturability and reduce the cost of using such sensors. Advanced integrated systems formed in optical fiber will radically change the ways of using fiber optic sensors in aircraft materials and structures.

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7. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-5-62-67
УДК 629.7.023.222
Zheleznyak V.G.
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8. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-5-68-75
УДК 629.7.023.222
Merkulova Yu.I., Kuznetsova V.A., Novikova T.A.

The results of testing the paint coating system based on fluorine polyurethane enamel and primer with a reduced content of toxic pigments are presented. The kinetics of water absorption of fluorine polyurethane enamel was studied in comparison with serial polyurethane coating UR-1161 and coating based on Aеrodur C21 / 100UVR enamel. To confirm the possibility of using the coating system using a primer and fluorine polyurethane enamel as a finishing layer, studies of the properties of coating systems in the initial state and after exposure to aging factors, namely heat resistance and resistance to cyclical exposure to high humidity and temperature differences, were carried out. It was established that all the coating systems under study retain a high level of adhesion both in the initial state and after aging factors. At the same time, the impact strength of the coatings remains at the original level of 50 cm (5.0 J). However, a completely regular decrease in elasticity occurs, which is caused by a change in the chemical structure of the polymer matrix, breaking of macromolecular chains and the formation of additional bonds. The system of coatings based on fluorine polyurethane enamel is the most resistant to the effects of thermo-moisture aging; the reduction in elasticity does not exceed 15%, and for the coating system based on Aerodur C 21/100UVR enamel, the reduction in elasticity reaches 51%.

The use of the above system paintwork will reduce emissions of harmful substances during painting, as well as improve the weather resistance of coatings compared to the used enamels UR-1161 and Aerodur C 21/100 UVR. It should be noted that the use of matte primer will reduce the complexity of the painting process due to the lack of manual operation (sanding) of the outer surface, compared with the used primers EP-0215, VG-28 and Aerodur CF 37047.

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9. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-5-76-84
УДК 620.1
Kadosov A.D., Lednev I.S., Pavlova T.D., Golovkov A.N.

Magnetic particle inspection is one of the most common methods of non-destructive testing of steel parts and at the same time has a high sensitivity. The detection of defects by the magnetic particle inspection method is influenced by many different factors: the magnetic characteristics of the material of the testing object, the method of control, the shape and size of the testing object, the types of magnetization and magnetizing current, the purity of processing and the surface roughness of the testing object, the presence on the surface of the testing object of contamination or coatings. The reliability of the inspection results directly depends on the reliability of the equipment and the quality of the flaw detection media.

To assess the performance of magnetic particle flaw detectors and media, test pieces are used-parts or special products with artificial or natural defects such as discontinuity of the material in the form of narrow flat grooves, cylindrical holes or cracks of different origin. The use of test pieces for magnetic particle inspection allows you to quickly and effectively assess the performance of flaw detectors and magnetic media. To check each type of magnetization, a specific type of test pieces is provided.

Ensuring the reliable operation of magnetic particle inspection means is possible only with the understanding and observance of the technology of application of control samples for the intended purpose it is unacceptable to use test pieces intended only for testing the performance of magnetic media, for testing the performance of magnetic flaw detectors, and vice versa.

In addition to the performance of the equipment and used indicator materials, one of the key factors affecting the detection of defects in magnetic particle testing are the magnitude and direction of the magnetizing field. Evaluatio

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10. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-5-85-93
УДК 620.193.21
Varchenko E.A., Kurs M.G.

The paper analyzes the results of tests to assess the resistance of marine structural materials to biological growth and the effects of corrosive factors of the marine environment. Information about the influence of the corrosive environment on the mechanical properties of welded joints of steels under various conditions of contact with seawater is presented, and it is shown that the most aggressive in terms of corrosive wear is the zone of variable wetting. The main environmental factors affecting the corrosion processes of objects operating in the marine environment were determined: atmospheric moisture, corrosive agents of the marine atmosphere (carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, etc.), water flow rates and physicochemical water parameters (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and ionic composition), which can vary depending on the location and depth of the reservoir. A number of marine metallic materials were analyzed to preserve their working capacity and durability at various flow rates of moving sea water. The work raises the question of the need to develop not only regulatory documents governing the conduct of tests in the marine environment, but also energy-saving and durable bench installations for conducting simulation tests. In addition, based on the conducted literary analysis of studies in seawater, the paper notes the problem of the heterogeneity of the results obtained and often the impossibility of comparing the results of experiments, due to the lack of uniform standards for testing. It is shown that in order to obtain reliable information about the durability of Russian-purpose materials, it is necessary to conduct research in the conditions that most fully and reliably imitate operational: materials testing, conjugation of sea water, tests at different depths of natural sea water, tests depending on the expected conditions of operation of the material in the product, including the simultaneou

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11. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-5-94-102
УДК 621.74.045
Guseva M.A., Aslanyan I.R.

Currently, in the manufacture of complex cast parts, both in domestic and in foreign practice, the method of casting based on model compositions is used. This method is widely used due to the possibility of obtaining castings of finished parts of varying complexity without additional processing. The quality and technological characteristics of the compositions are determined by the components included in their composition. As a rule, these are organic compounds that are easily melted from the shell: thermopolymer resins, copolymers and oligomers, synthetic waxes, which are characterized by an increased rate of hardening and high physicomechanical and technological characteristics.

The determination of the rheological behavior of the material makes it possible to evaluate even at the stage of development and combining the components of its characteristics and its field of application. The study of the rheological properties of model compositions allows us to estimate the elastic, viscous and plastic properties of molding and core model melts. When a model is cast, a model melt in a viscous-plastic state flows through channels of complex geometric shape, therefore the fluidity of the composition when filling the cavities of a ceramic mold is an important technological factor. The rheological behavior of model compositions is the theoretical basis of the processes of their pressing in the manufacture of models of castings, as well as the defining method for studying their technological properties.

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12. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-5-103-110
УДК 620.1:629.7.023.222
Pavlov A.V., Andreeva N.P., Pavlov M.R., Merkulova Yu.I.

The paper discusses the results of climatic tests of fluoroplastic-epoxy coating, developed and certified in the FSUE “VIAM” and used for painting aircraft. This coating is a two-component material: the semi-finished of the coating is a suspension of pigments in a solution of a fluoroplast-epoxy binder, and the hardener is a silicone amine. The coating can be obtained by natural curing, and it is important for painting of products.

Coating was tested at domestic climate stations (Gelendzhik, Moscow), and at the foreign stations (Hoa Lac station and Dam Bai station, Republic of Vietnam). The change in coatings was studied using standard techniques adopted in the paint industry: appearance evaluation (GOST 9.407), adhesion using the lattice cuts method (GOST 15140), method for determining the gloss of coatings (GOST 31975-2013), method for determining color difference (GOST R 52490- 2005), a method for determining the degree of coating chalking (GOST 16976).

Studies have shown a high adhesive strength of coatings based on the coating under study throughout the exposure in all the considered climatic zones, the change in the decorative properties is insignificant. The durability of coating is much higher than other commercially used coatings

In the study of changes occurring on the surface of the coating during field tests in the tropical climate of Vietnam, an assessment of structural changes was carried out using IR-spectroscopy. In the approximation of the proportionality of the intensity of the absorption peaks and the amount of the substance, it was assumed that the content of the fluoroplastic component in the coating decreases during the exposure. Moreover, the higher the dose of solar radiation, the weathering processes are more intensive, and the content of fluorine-containing component decreases.

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